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Duolingo is free language learning learning software accessible through the internet and through IOS and Android software. The business model of the software and the site is that revenues are primarily generated through advertisements or through the payment of a monthly subscription fee. The monthly subscription fee removes the advertisements for the user and allows the user to download lessons rather than needing access to the internet.

Within Duolingo, the language learning pair is called a "tree", due to its historical appearance. Even thought the skill tree no longer looks like a tree, it consists of skills represented by circles. You must complete all the lessons within the skills at one level before the next level of skills is unlocked. Trees are generally created by a team of volunteers. The software also awards you with "lingots" for completing lessons, for multi-day streaks, and for achieving your daily activity goals. The software is designed to turn the language learning process into a game, which increases the motivation of the students.

The software has won numerous awards for best free language software. However, there is a consensus within the language learning community that the software is a good supplement for more traditional language learning systems, and can help the student gain knowledge through the A2 level.

Hints Edit

While the Duolingo site no longer directly displays this information, the site accesses the underlying database to provide more detailed information about the student's progress. This information includes the decay of words as time goes on. To access the detailed information, go to

Once a tree has been completed, many users continue on to the reverse tree for additional skill gains. A reverse tree is a tree designed to teach the student's L1 within the newly learned L2 language. For example, upon completing the French for English speakers tree, the student could continue on with the English for French speakers tree. Since each tree is independently created, there will be an increase in the vocabulary being learned.

Opinions and criticismEdit

One notable danger is learning only to translate and having difficulties thinking directly in your target language. Some users have also reported that the quality of the advanced lessons is low. The general consensus appears to be that it's not very comprehensive, but can work well as a supplement.

See the following threads:

Available Language Courses Edit

Language Courses for English Speakers Edit

Language Active Students[1] Tree[2] Skills Lessons Lexemes[3] Reverse Tree[4] Notes
Arabic 75,500 31 150 1053 Yes
Chinese 3,370,000 88 284 1,932 Yes
Czech 408,000 84 422 2,362 Yes
Danish 525,000 70 340 2,341
Dutch 1,320,000 123 502 2,933 Yes
Esperanto 319,000 62 340 2,284
French 12,000,000[5] V2 78+2 358+6 2,366+39 Yes Old existing tree[6]
French 12,000,000[5] V3 96+3 402+9 2,811+55 Yes Volunteer contributor tree[6][7]
French 12,000,000[5] Tree8 119+3 598+9 3,816+55 Yes Staff and contractor tree[6][7]

All users to be migrated to V4 in early 2019

French 12,000,000[5] Tree12 156+2 741+6 4,906+39 Yes New tree (11/18)[7][8]
German 7,390,000 121 458 2,864 Yes
Greek 1,030,000 74 278 2,010 Yes
Hawaiian 466,000 9 27 104 In beta
Hebrew 840,000 84 446 2,833
High Valyrian 1.030,000 33 122 706
Hindi 924,000 32 133 656 Yes
Hungarian 327,000 78 319 2,367 Yes In beta
Indonesian 298,000 69 310 1,882 Yes In beta
Irish 951,000 64 292 1,711
Italian 5,130,000 66 405 2,784 Yes
Japanese 4,840,000 40 185 1,217 Yes
Klingon 486,000 62 237 1,459 In beta
Korean 3,570,000 65 258 1,793 Yes
Navajo 272,000 11 28 143 In beta
Norwegian (Bokmål) 810,000 117 531 3,428
Polish 852,000 67 298 1,938 Yes
Portuguese 2,220,000 91 463 2,919 Yes New tree[9]
Romanian 457,000 62 286 2,405 Yes
Russian 2,980,000 79 350 2,279 Yes
Spanish 22,500,000 113 520 3,309 Yes
Swahili 367,000 65 195 1,257
Swedish 1,110,000 66 325 2,361
Turkish 1,390,000 67 200 1,465 Yes
Ukrainian 321,000 51 209 1,108 Yes
Vietnamese 600,000 84 320 1,661 Yes
Welsh 353,000 118 416 2,366

Other language courses Edit

If the only course offered in a language is English and it qualifies as a reverse tree from English (above), it will not be listed below:

  • Arabic speakers can take courses in English, French, German, and Swedish. A Spanish course is hatching[10].
  • Bengali speakers will be able to take a course in English, which is currently hatching[10].
  • Chinese speakers can take courses in English and Spanish. French, German, Italian, Japanese, and Korean courses are hatching[10].
  • French speakers can take courses in English, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish.
  • German speakers can take courses in English, French, and Spanish.
  • Italian speakers can take courses in English, French, German, and Spanish.
  • Portuguese speakers can take courses in English, Esperanto (in beta), French, German, Italian, and Spanish.
  • Russian speakers can take courses in English, French, German, Spanish, and Swedish.
  • Spanish speakers can take courses in Catalan, English, Esparanto, French, German, Guarani (Jopará), Italian, Portuguese, and Russian.
  • Tagalog speakers can take a course in English.
  • Tamil speakers can take a course in English.
  • Telugu speakers can take a course in English.
  • Thai speakers can take a course in English.
  • Turkish speakers can take courses in French, English, German, and Russian.

Links Edit

Official web site:

Duolingo Wiki:

References and Notes Edit

  1. As of 29 June 2019; reported by Duolingo
  2. If more than one active tree exists, data will be listed for each active tree. Once a new tree is fully launched, new users will be placed in the new tree. Users cannot choose which tree they are placed in. If only one active tree exists, this field remains blank.
  3. Lexemes are neither actual lexemes or individual words. Lexemes includes each word form as a separate lexemes as well as combined lexemes such as bonne nuit in the French course. There are reports of duplicates on the list.
  4. Is there a reverse tree (target language to english). Yes means the reverse tree exists. Beta means the reverse tree is in beta. Hatching means the reverse tree is being created, but not yet available.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Active number of students in all French trees
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 French Trees Explained;
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 French Trees Stats?;
  8. New English->French A/B tree (V5??) with 156 skills, 741 lessons, 4906 "DL lexemes ids" is out,
  9. The new Portuguese Tree is under Test! :D :D :D;
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Hatching means that a volunteer team is working on building the tree, but it has not yet been placed into open beta
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